The recently signed agreement between the United States of America and India for cooperation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy has resulted in considerable controversy and spurred debate on the appropriate role of nuclear power in India’s energy mix.  While it appears that nuclear power is being perceived as a silver bullet to our energy problems, in reality its role is likely to be, at best, more limited. We are neglecting a host of energy options that are far cheaper and critical for the wellbeing of our people and the economy. This presentation by Girish Sant and Daljit Singh identifies the challenges of nuclear energy and describes major gains possible in sectors like coal, natural gas, fuel wood, and energy efficiency etc.